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- Antioxidant activity of indigo and its preventive effect against ethanol-induced DNA damage in rat gastric mucosa
- Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP)
- Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
- Ethanol-induced oxidative damage is commonly associated with the generation of reactive oxygen molecules, leading to oxidative stress. Considering that antioxidant activity is an important mechanism of action involved in cytoprotection, the aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the alkaloid indigo (1) (2 mg/kg, p. o.), obtained from the leaves of Indigofera truxillensis Kunth (Fabaceae), on rat gastric mucosa submitted to ethanol-induced (100%, 1 mL, p.o.) gastric ulcer. Enzymatic assays and DNA fragmentation analysis were performed. When ethanol was administered to the control group, the sulfhydryl content (SH) and the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity decreased by 41% and 50%, respectively; in contrast, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities increased by 56% and 67%, respectively. Additionally, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, a marker for free radical generation caused by polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) tissue infiltration, also increased 4.5-fold after ethanol treatment. Rat gastric mucosa exposed to ethanol showed DNA fragmentation. Indigo alkaloid pretreatment protected rats from ethanol-induced gastric lesions. This effect was determined by the ulcerative lesion area (ULA), indicating an inhibition of around 80% at 2 mg/kg. This alkaloid also diminished GPx activity, which was higher than that observed with ethanol alone. However, this effect was counterbalanced by increased GR activity. Indigo was unable to restore alterations in SOD activity promoted by ethanol. After indigo pretreatment, SH levels and MPO activity remained normal and gastric mucosa DNA damage caused by ethanol was also partially prevented by indigo. These results suggest that the gastroprotective mechanisms of indigo include non-enzymatic antioxidant effects and the inhibition of PMN infiltration which, in combination, partially protect the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced DNA damage.
- Planta Medica. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag Kg, v. 73, n. 12, p. 1241-1246, 2007.
- Georg Thieme Verlag Kg
- Indigofera truxillensis
- free radicals
- antioxidant enzymes
- gastric ulcer
- MPO activity
- DNA damage
- Acesso restrito
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