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- Propolis effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine production and Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 expression in stressed mice
- Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
- Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)
- Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES)
- FAPESP: 07/02692-6
- CAPES: 199-01/2007
- Introduction: Propolis is a beehive product and its immunomodulatory action has been well documented; however, little is known concerning its activity on the immune system of stressed mice. This work investigated a possible role of propolis against the immunosuppressive effects induced by stress in mice, assessing the pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1 beta and IL-6) production and Toll-like receptor (TLR-2 and TLR-4) expression by spleen cells.Methods: BALB/c mice were divided into 3 groups: G1 was considered control; G2 was submitted to restraint stress for 3 days, and G3 was treated with propolis and immediately submitted to stress. After sacrifice, spleens were removed and TLR-2 and TLR-4 gene expression was analyzed, as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Serum corticosterone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay as a stress indicator.Results: Stressed mice, treated or not with propolis, produced higher corticosterone levels, whereas IL-1 beta and IL-6 production was inhibited. TLR-2 and TLR-4 expression was inhibited in stressed mice, while propolis exerted an immunorestorative role in TLR-4 expression. The immunosuppressive effects on IL-1 beta and IL-6 production and on TLR expression by stressed mice might have occurred due to a higher corticosterone production during stress.Conclusion: Propolis treatment did not antagonize the inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine production, however it restored at least partially TLR2 mRNA expression and counteracted the inhibition on TLR-4 expression in stressed animals, contributing to the recognition of microorganisms during stressful conditions. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- International Immunopharmacology. Amsterdam: Elsevier B.V., v. 9, n. 11, p. 1352-1356, 2009.
- Elsevier B.V.
- Toll-like receptor
- Pro-inflammatory cytokines
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