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Death by apoptosis in salivary glands of females of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari : Ixodidae)
Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)
Sponsorship Process Number: 
FAPESP: 04/13327-9
The salivary glands of females of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus at three feeding stages: unfed, engorged, and at day three post-engorgement, were subjected to cytochemical methods of enzymatic analysis and cell viability. Comparing glands at these stages, was observed distinct staining patterns in cells of different types of acini, specially in degenerating types III, II, I, which were affected in this sequence by cell death. This study also revealed changes in: nuclei, staining intensity for acid phosphatase and ATPase activities, and permeability of the plasma membrane. Acid phosphatase activity was inversely proportional to that of ATPase, while ATPase activity was always proportional to membrane integrity. The glands of unfed females exhibited high metabolic activity and cells with intact nucleus and plasma membrane, suggesting that the presence of acid phosphatase detected in these individuals may participate in the normal physiology of some acini, as they were not undergoing degeneration. In acini I and II of engorged females, we observed cells with intact membranes, as well as changes characterized by nuclear changes, decrease in ATPase activity, and stronger acid phosphatase activity. At day three post-engorgement, degeneration progressed to more advanced stages, loss of membrane integrity was observed in most cells (of some type I acini, most type II acini, and all type III acini), as well as prominent nuclear changes, decrease in ATPase activity, and intense acid phosphatase activity, resulting in apoptotic bodies. During the death of cells nuclear changes preceded cytoplasmic ones in the following sequence: nuclear changes, loss of ATPase activity, loss of integrity of the plasma membrane, increase in acid phosphatase activity, and formation of apoptotic bodies. The presence of acid phosphatase with a secondary role (late) during cell death, degrading final cell remnants, characterized this process in the glands of R. sanguineus females as atypical or non-classic apoptosis. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Issue Date: 
Experimental Parasitology. San Diego: Academic Press Inc. Elsevier B.V., v. 119, n. 1, p. 152-163, 2008.
Time Duration: 
Academic Press Inc. Elsevier B.V.
  • Rhipicephalus sanguineus
  • Salivary gland
  • Ticks
  • Female
  • feeding stage
  • Enzymatic activity
  • Cell death
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Appears in Collections:Artigos, TCCs, Teses e Dissertações da Unesp

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