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Cytologic analysis of alterations induced by smoking and by alcohol consumption
Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Objective: To analyze cytologically the buccal mucosa of smoking and nonsmoking volunteers to determine what cellular changes are induced by cigarettes and alcohol consumption. Study Design: In order to evaluate cellular changes induced by smoking and alcohol consumption, exfoliative cytology was used for the analysis of mucosal smears obtained from the buccal mucosa of 25 smokers and 25 nonsmokers. The number of cigarettes consumed, duration of smoking, presence or absence of alcohol ingestion, ingested alcohol dose and frequency of consumption, and most frequently used type of alcoholic beverage were determined using a questionnaire. Three smears from each individual stained by the Papanicolaou method were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively under a light microscope by 2 experienced examiners in terms of inflammatory and dysplastic alterations and of the degree of epithelial maturation. Results: Although numerous alterations were observed in smokers they corresponded up to only Papanicolaou class II and were not significantly different from nonsmokers (Mann-Whitney and χ 2 tests, p < 0.05). A higher proportion of inflammatory cells (polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells) were obtained from smokers as compared to nonsmokers, while the proportion of bacteria was similar in the 2 groups. Conclusion: The findings indicate that even after a short period of cigarette use and alcohol consumption, inflammatory alterations were detectable on exfoliative cytology of the buccal mucosa in a young group, demonstrating the usefulness of cytology for early detection in smokers. © The International Academy of Cytology.
Issue Date: 
Acta Cytologica, v. 50, n. 4, p. 435-440, 2006.
Time Duration: 
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Buccal mucosa
  • Tobacco
  • alcohol
  • adult
  • alcohol consumption
  • alcoholic beverage
  • cell maturation
  • cheek mucosa
  • cigarette smoking
  • clinical article
  • controlled study
  • cytology
  • diagnostic value
  • dose response
  • dysplasia
  • exfoliative cytology
  • human
  • human cell
  • human tissue
  • inflammation
  • inflammatory cell
  • microscopy
  • mononuclear cell
  • Papanicolaou test
  • polymorphonuclear cell
  • priority journal
  • qualitative analysis
  • quantitative analysis
  • questionnaire
  • smear
  • smoking
  • Adult
  • Alcohol Drinking
  • Humans
  • Mouth Mucosa
  • Smoking
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Appears in Collections:Artigos, TCCs, Teses e Dissertações da Unesp

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