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- Sympatho-excitation during chemoreflex active expiration is mediated by L-glutamate in the RVLM/Bötzinger complex of rats
- Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
- The involvement of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the rostral ventrolateral medulla/Bötzinger/pre-Bötzinger complexes (RVLM/BötC/pre-BötC) on the respiratory modulation of sympathoexcitatory response to peripheral chemoreflex activation (chemoreflex) was evaluated in the working heart-brain stem preparation of juvenile rats. We identified different types of baro- and chemosensitive presympathetic and respiratory neurons intermingled within the RVLM/BötC/pre-BötC. Bilateral microinjections of kynurenic acid (KYN) into the rostral aspect of RVLM (RVLM/BötC) produced an additional increase in frequency of the phrenic nerve (PN: 0.38 ± 0.02 vs. 1 ± 0.08 Hz; P < 0.05; n = 18) and hypoglossal (HN) inspiratory response (41 ± 2 vs. 82 ± 2%; P < 0.05; n = 8), but decreased postinspiratory (35 ± 3 vs. 12 ± 2%; P < 0.05) and late-expiratory (24 ± 4 vs. 2 ±1%; P < 0.05; n = 5) abdominal (AbN) responses to chemoreflex. Likewise, expiratory vagal (cVN; 67 ± 6 vs. 40 ± 2%; P < 0.05; n = 5) and expiratory component of sympathoexcitatory (77 ± 8 vs. 26 ± 5%; P < 0.05; n = 18) responses to chemoreflex were reduced after KYN microinjections into RVLM/BötC. KYN microinjected into the caudal aspect of the RVLM (RVLM/pre-BötC; n = 16) abolished inspiratory responses [PN (n = 16) and HN (n = 6)], and no changes in magnitude of sympathoexcitatory (n = 16) and expiratory (AbN and cVN; n = 10) responses to chemoreflex, producing similar and phase-locked vagal, abdominal, and sympathetic responses. We conclude that in relation to chemoreflex activation 1) ionotropic glutamate receptors in RVLM/BötC and RVLM/pre-BötC are pivotal to expiratory and inspiratory responses, respectively; and 2) activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors in RVLM/BötC is essential to the coupling of active expiration and sympathoexcitatory response.
- Journal of Neurophysiology, v. 108, n. 2, p. 610-623, 2012.
- sympathetic–respiratory coupling
- respiratory control
- Acesso restrito
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