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dc.contributor.authorde Paula, M. H.-
dc.contributor.authorde Carvalho, A. A.-
dc.contributor.authorBrassalotti, A. L.-
dc.contributor.authorAlter, A. J.-
dc.contributor.authorSakamoto, W. K.-
dc.contributor.authorMalmonge, J. A.-
dc.contributor.authorde Almeida, Aparecido-
dc.identifier.citationMedical and Biological Engineering and Computing, v. 43, n. 6, p. 751-755, 2005.-
dc.description.abstractA novel instrument for measurement of X-ray intensity from mammography consists of a sensitive pyro-electric detector, a high-sensitivity, low-noise current-to-voltage converter, a microcontroller and a digital display. The heart of this device, and what makes it unique is the pyro-electric detector, which measures radiation by converting heat from absorbed incident X-rays into an electric current. This current is then converted to a voltage and digitised. The detector consists of a ferro-electric crystal; two types were tested; lithium tantalate and lithium niobate. X-ray measurement in mammography is challenging because of its relatively low photon energy range, from 11 keV to 15 keV equivalent mean energy, corresponding to a peak tube potential from 22 to 36 kV. Consequently, energy fluence rate or intensity is low compared with that of common diagnostic X-ray. The instrument is capable of measuring intensities as low as 0.25 mWm -2 with precision greater than 99%. Not only was the instrument capable of performing in the clinical environment, with high background electromagnetic interference and vibration, but its performance was not degraded after being subjected to 140 roentgen (3.6 × 10 -2 C kg -2 air) as measured by piezo-electric (d 33) or pyro-electric coefficients. © IFMBE 2005.en
dc.subjectPyro-electric detector-
dc.subjectClinical environments-
dc.subjectDigital display-
dc.subjectElectromagnetic interference-
dc.subjectEnergy fluences-
dc.subjectLithium niobate-
dc.subjectLithium tantalate-
dc.subjectLow noise-
dc.subjectMean energy-
dc.subjectPhoton energy range-
dc.subjectPyro-electric detectors-
dc.subjectX ray measurements-
dc.subjectElectric potential-
dc.subjectElectromagnetic compatibility-
dc.subjectElectromagnetic pulse-
dc.subjectNiobium compounds-
dc.subjectX rays-
dc.titleMicrocontrolled pyro-electric instrument for measuring X-ray intensity in mammographyen
dc.contributor.institutionFederal University of Mato Grosso do Sul-
dc.contributor.institutionUniversidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)-
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of Wisconsin-
dc.contributor.institutionUniversidade de São Paulo (USP)-
dc.description.affiliationDepartment of Physics Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande-
dc.description.affiliationDepartment of Electrical Engineering São Paulo State University, São Paulo-
dc.description.affiliationDepartment of Medical Physics University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI-
dc.description.affiliationDepartment of Physics and Chemistry São Paulo State University, São Paulo-
dc.description.affiliationDepartment of Physics and Mathematics University of São Paulo, São Paulo-
dc.description.affiliationUnespDepartment of Electrical Engineering São Paulo State University, São Paulo-
dc.description.affiliationUnespDepartment of Physics and Chemistry São Paulo State University, São Paulo-
dc.rights.accessRightsAcesso restrito-
dc.relation.ispartofMedical and Biological Engineering and Computing-
Appears in Collections:Artigos, TCCs, Teses e Dissertações da Unesp

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